Early childhood development (ECD) access and quality inequalities can manifest as school and labour market outcomes that are persistently unequal by race, gender and geography. Using the General Household Survey 2019 and Early Childhood Development Census 2009–2014 data, we find that household socio-economic status, proximity to ECD centres and the mother's educational attainment are positively associated with ECD enrolment. Having an economically inactive or unemployed adult in the household is negatively associated with enrolment rates. This paper also evaluates the programme gains (value added) of five ECD programmes in the large-scale cross-sectional the Early Learning Outcomes Measure study. We find gains that are surprisingly large, considering that these programmes served mainly poorer children, and because contact time per week for three of the programmes was only 2½ to 8 hours.