This study covers Windhoek, one of four African cities surved between 2013 and 2019 by the African Center for Cities. The African Center for cities is based at the University of Cape Town and is a partner of the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP).
The HCP studies include household data on food insecurity, household food purchasing dynamics, nutritional discounting taking place in households, foods consumed and multidimensional measures of poverty. The household data is complimented with household member data and food retailer (vendor) data, including infomation on vendor employees.
The Hungry Cities Partnership is an international network of cities and city-based partner organizations which focuses on the relationships between rapid urbanization, informality, inclusive growth and urban food systems in the Global South.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
V1: Cleaned and anonymised for public use
The houeshold surveys adopted the USAID aligned Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance modules, detailed by the measures of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, Household Food Insecurity Access Prevalence Scale, Household Dietary Diversity Score and the Months of Adequate Food Provisioning. The surveys provide data on food insecurity, household food purchasing dynamics, nutritional discounting taking place in households, and foods consumed. Over and above this, the surveys also provide insights into the levels of multidimension poverty, through the use of the Lived Poverty Index. This combination highlights the connections between food insecurity and lived poverty.
The informal vendor survey instrument sought information on issues including vendor demographic characteristics, entrepreneurial motivations, business financing, enterprise character, operations, challenges, strategies, and aspirations of the vendors. The informal vendor surveys covered over 3500 vendors across the same scale.
The household sample is deisgned to be representative of the city of Windhoek.
In the public release the lowest geographic level is the city. In the secure version of the data, GPS data is available.
Households and food vendors in Windhoek.
Producers and sponsors
Hungry Cities Partnership, African Centre for Cities
University of Cape Town
University of Namibia
International Development Research Centre
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
Household survey: A two-stage sampling procedure was used for the household survey. According to the documention, 35 PSUs were selected from the 2011 census master frame, with selection proportionate to size. This is different to the other cities, where the number of households selected (second stage) was according to relative size. Households were selected from within these PSUs in the second stage using systematic sampling.
Vendor: As of yet DataFirst has not received documentation that corresponds to the vendor data. Users can try browsing the reports published on the hungry cities partnership website for extra information.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
This project received ethics approval by the Ethics in Research Commitee of the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Cape Town on the 13th of April 2015.
There are two questionnaires per city, a household questionnaire and a vendor questionnaire. The household questionnaire has a subsection for household members (persons), and the vendor quesitonnaire has a subsection for employees. Answers to these subsections are supplied in separete datafiles, which can be matched to (merged with) the questoinnaire as necessary.
Household: The question numbering in the Windhoek data was out of position compared to the other cities and the questionnaire. This was due to some questions (20 and 21) being dropped and an extra question being asked (q17, the five-year version). This was fixed in data cleaning, so that the question numbers again correspond to the questionnaire as well as the other three cities.
Person: The person question number was also out in Windhoek, and was again corrected in the data preparation phase. Users can request records of data preparation and sytax files for more information.
Vendor: The question numbering in the Windhoek data is different. Rather than using letters for subquestions (1a, 1b, 1c) it uses decimals (1.1, 1.2, 1.3). Variables were named to match this using underscores instead of decimal points as well as lettes where these were necessary to avoid too many decimal places. The food questions were also asked differentely in Windhoek, vendors could specify the foods they sell, rather then answer "yes" or "no" to a list of foods.
Employee: Like the vendor data, the employee question numbering does not match the previous cities. The employee data came with the vendor data in Windhoek, but was separated out to match the other cities.
Household: Questions 20 and 21 are missing from the Windhoek data and it appears they were not asked. Sometimes the "please specify" answer that should go with the selection of "other" is missing despite "other" being given as an answer. In the transfers section, question 10.d about travel time is missing from the data.
Vendor: The Windhoek questionnaire only allows users to enter "missing", not "refused" or "do not know".
University of Cape Town
Public use files, available to all
Hungry Cities Partnership, African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town. Hungry Cities Partnership Survey, Windhoek 2016-2019. [dataset]. Version 1. Cape Town: HCP [producer], 2020. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25828/34j4-qb67