This study covers Maputo, one of four African cities surved between 2013 and 2019 by the African Center for Cities. The African Center for cities is based at the University of Cape Town and is a partner of the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP).
The HCP studies include household data on food insecurity, household food purchasing dynamics, nutritional discounting taking place in households, foods consumed and multidimensional measures of poverty. The household data is complimented with household member data and food retailer (vendor) data, including infomation on vendor employees.
The Hungry Cities Partnership is an international network of cities and city-based partner organizations which focuses on the relationships between rapid urbanization, informality, inclusive growth and urban food systems in the Global South.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
V1: Cleaned and anonymised for public use
The houeshold surveys adopted the USAID-aligned Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance modules, detailed by the measures of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, Household Food Insecurity Access Prevalence Scale, Household Dietary Diversity Score and the Months of Adequate Food Provisioning. The surveys provide data on food insecurity, household food purchasing dynamics, nutritional discounting taking place in households, and foods consumed. Over and above this, the surveys also provide insights into the levels of multidimension poverty, through the use of the Lived Poverty Index. This combination highlights the connections between food insecurity and lived poverty.
The informal vendor survey instrument sought information on issues including vendor demographic characteristics, entrepreneurial motivations, business financing, enterprise character, operations, challenges, strategies, and aspirations of the vendors. The informal vendor surveys covered over 3500 vendors across the same scale.
The household sample is deisgned to be representative of the city of Maputo.
In the public release the lowest geographic level is the city (Maputo). In the secure version of the data, the lowest geographic/administrative unit at which dissagregated data is available is the ward. GPS data is also available in the secure version.
Households and Vendors in Maputo.
Producers and sponsors
Hungry Cities Partnership, African Centre for Cities
University of Cape Town
Eduardo Mondlane University
International Development Research Centre
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
Household: The sampling strategy was a two stage process: first 19 wards were randomly selected. The sample sizes were determined using stratified proportionate sampling (the sample sizes drawn from each ward was proportionate to the size of each ward relative to the total population of Maputo). These sample size estimates were provided by a statistician working for the Mozambique government. On the ground, enumerators surveyed every third household along their sampling routes. As such the second-stage is systematic. The starting point and route for each enumerator within each ward was determined by each enumerator team supervisor (ensuring that the routes did not overlap). 2071 households were interviewed.
Only five of the seven districts of Maputo were included in the sampling procedure.
Deviations from the Sample Design
The following issues were noted in the documentation. Firstly, for security reasons, it was decided that the survey only took place during daylight hours, which may have affected the kinds of responses received from members of the household (working members may not have been present). Secondly, transportation logistics may have affected the enumerator's ability to cover the entire ward.
The sampling baseline report notes that the boundaries of the wards were based on the report of ward secretaries which may have been imperfect.
The documentation states that 98.3% of household surveys were "complete", but it is not clear if this includes refusals at the household level or if this is for households that agreed to participate. The documentation adds that the response rate for the household income and expenditure scales were very low (approximately 50%).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
This project received ethics approval by the Ethics in Research Commitee of the Faculty of Commerce at the University of Cape Town on the 13th of April 2015.
Data Collection Notes
The enumerator team was composed of 25 enumerators divided into three teams which were led by 3 enumerator supervisors. The entire survey of Maputo was completed in 9 days of fieldwork.
Eduardo Mondlane University
There are two questionnaires per city, a household questionnaire and a vendor questionnaire. The household questionnaire has a subsection for household members (persons), and the vendor quesitonnaire has a subsection for employees. Answers to these subsections are supplied in separete datafiles, which can be matched to (merged with) the questoinnaire as necessary.
Both surveys was translated into Brazilian Portuguese for Maputo.
Vendor surveys were administered to the person directly responsible for the running of the business using handheld tablets. The household survey was administered to a senior adult member of the household, someone who could speak for the household.
Because DataFirst has not yet received the household questionnaire for Maputo, this data is for now distributed with the "master" household questionnaire from the project. The Maputo questionnaire different only slightly from this, for example, there was no question for "maize" or "mielie meal" in the Maputo data.
Datafiles were received by DataFirst in SPSS (.sav) and Excel (.xlsx) format. Variables had to be named and variable labels were taken from question text. Variables were named according to question number and subject matter, in a hierachical fasion.
An effort was made to keep question numbers and value labels consistent across cities where the same questions were asked for the 2013-2019 surveys. For the vendor data, Cape Town, Maputo and Nairobi had almost identical questionnaires and so the question numbers were naturally the same across these cities (harmonized). For the household data, Maputo, Nairobi and Windhoek were similar and could be harmonized. This means users could try stack these datafiles. This also means that list numbers/value codes might not match the questionnaire for a given city.
Missing values of 97, 98, and 99 were converted to -97, -98 and -99. There were some question numbers wrong in the vendor data questionnaires (typos) that were corrected.
Note that in the Maputo household questionnaire, there are four questions numbered confusingly at 10c. and 10.c, and 10d. and 10.d. This was fixed by dropping the latter 10.d, which was empty, and renaming 10.c to 10b1. As such, the answer to "where does the household produce these crops?" is recorded in the variables prefixed with q10b1.
In general the lists change subtly between cities, for example the lists of foods in question 8 of the household data. As such the user should take caution when comparing across cities, and refer to the questionnaires. When the lists differed in a potentially confusing way, list item letters (a-z) were left in the variable name as a second way for the user to check that the data match the questionnaire correctly.
Examples of differing lists: Section F about trasfer from urban to rural areas was not asked in Maputo. In question 19 there is no "unemployment insurance" or "grants for pregnant women" in the data despite being in the master questionnaire. Maputo is often missing the option to say "other", possibly because it was never selected.
University of Cape Town
Hungry Cities Partnership, African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town. Hungry Cities Partnership Survey, Maputo 2014-2017. [dataset]. Version 1. Cape Town: HCP [producer], 2020. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25828/3gfe-5412