Mathematics and science are key areas of knowledge for the development of individuals and for the social and economic development of South Africa. In November 2002, about 9000 Grade 8 learners from South African public schools participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). This monograph reports on South Africas performance in TIMSS in relation to the other 50 countries. In addition, the report describes the performance of different groups of learners in South Africa and provides contextual information about, teachers, schools and the curriculum. The report concludes with recommendations for strategic interventions that could contribute to improved performance in mathematics and science. The findings contained in this report offer valuable insights to academics, policymakers, curriculum-planners, teachers and those involved in the development of education in South Africa.