n South Africa, the level of HIV infection is reaching crisis proportions. Besides sexual abstinence and mutually monogamous sexual relations, use of the condom has an important role to play in curbing the further spread of the HIV/AIDS. The aim of this article is to explore the extent and determinants of condom use inside and outside the primary sexual relationships. The research objectives are addressed using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The study found that knowledge about condoms, as a method of dual protection against the risk of pregnancy and disease, is high. Despite this, condoms are not a popular method of protection, especially within the primary sexual relationship. Consistent with numerous other studies, this study found widespread disapproval of condom use. Condoms are more likely to be used in non-primary than primary sexual relationships. In both relationships, condom use corresponds closely with level of education.