This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status and feeding practices of <5 year children among the pastoral communities of Simanjiro district, northern Tanzania.. Face-to-face interviews with the sampled mothers were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements using weight-for-age criterion were employed to assess the nutritional status. The study showed that 31% of the children were undernourished, some (6%) of them severely. Children 2 - 3 years old were the most affected. Breastfeeding duration of more than one year was common among the mothers. Fifty-four percent of the mothers weaned their children as early as two months after birth. The most common type of weaning food was maize porridge (gruel) mixed with cow’s milk (46%). Generally, 87% of households were facing some degree of food insecurity where some of them either experienced food shortage for 3-4 months (40%) or reported to eat less than three meals per day (75%). An educated mother was less likely to have an undernourished child, while a child from a teenage mother was more likely to be undernourished. Small size of a household was in favour of nutrition status. There is a great need to undertake interventions through community education to rescue the situation in Simanjiro district. Efforts should also be undertaken to mobilize the community members to adopt practices that favour good nutrition of children.