This paper uses a unique panel data set from Ethiopia to examine the determinants of participation in and receipts of food aid through free distribution (FD) and food-forwork (FFW). Results show that aggregate rainfall and livestock shocks increase household articipation in both FD and FFW. FFW also seems well-targeted to asset poor households. The probability of receiving FD does not appear to be targeted based on household wealth, but FD receipts are lower for wealthier households. The effects of FD and FFW on child nutritional status differ depending on the modality of food aid and the gender of the child. Both FFW and FD have a positive direct impact on weight-forheight. Households invest proceeds from FD in girls’ nutrition, while earnings from FFW are manifested in better nutrition for boys. The effects of the gender of the aid recipient are not conclusive.