This report contains descriptions of the life circumstances and living conditions of the people counted in South Africa on census night in 2001. It also focuses on the changes that took place between 1996 and 2001. On the night of 9–10 October 2001, there were an estimated 44,8 million people in South Africa. This number had increased by 4,2 million people from the estimated 40,6 million on the same night five years before, at the time of Census 1996. The number of households in South Africa also increased from an estimated 9,1 million households2 in 1996 to an estimated 11,2 million households in 2001. This report also focuses on findings related to households and their living conditions. In addition, the report examines two special groups of people, namely those who were not born in South Africa and the disabled.