Post-Apartheid Income and Expenditure Series 1995-2010
Income/Expenditure Survey [hh/ies]
The main objective of the Post-Apartheid Income and Expenditure Series (PIES) is to try and ameliorate some of the inconsistencies that have resulted from the alterations that occured in the Income and Expenditure Surveys (IES) released by Statistics South Africa in the past two decades. At the time of the production of PIES version 1, four IESs had been conducted - in 1995, 2000, 2005-2006, and 2010-2011, and the data published by Statistics South Africa. Two major methodological changes in the 2005-2006 IES have complicated comparisons of the IES data over time. PIES stacks these four IES surveys and standardises, matches, and adjusts the data and the sampling weights. This produces consolidated, time-consistent, and item-comparable data that provides more accurate and nuanced interpretations of the income and consumption profiles of South African households over a span of 15 years.
Three files are released in version 1 of PIES. The first is a nominal dataset called "zaf-dpru-pies-nominal-v1" where no price adjustments have been made. For the other two datasets, the expenditure, income and other monetary values are deflated to June 2016 prices. There are two "real price" datasets because the deflation methods were different, which is discussed briefly here. Users are advised to consult the documentation for a detailed discussion. In “zaf-dpru-pies-real1-v1”, the nominal amounts for expenditure, income and other monetary values are deflated with “total CPI” indices, which were made for each year of the IES (1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010). A “total CPI” index is calculated as the weighted sum of the (sub)category price indices. The “zaf-dpru-pies-real2-v2” data however differs in two ways. Firstly, its expenditure items are deflated using multiple deflators instead of a single "total CPI" deflator. Secondly, the deflators for income, debt and other unmatched items are determined by the household's particular expenditure pattern.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
v1: Edited, anonymised dataset for public distribution
Version 1: This is the first version of PIES that is available to the public. PIES v1 was produced by DPRU in 2016 and DataFirst started distributing the dataset from 2021.
Income and Expenditure Surveys conducted by Statistics South Africa from 1995 collected data on all income received by household members and all goods and services obtained by the household.
The surveys used to construct PIES had national coverage
The lowest level of geographic aggregation in PIES is province.
The target population for each of the IES surveys is all SA households . Data users will need to consult the individual IES surveys for information on the universe for each survey.
Producers and sponsors
Development Policy Research Unit
University of Cape Town
Statistics South Africa
Government of South Africa
Producer of the source data used in PIES
The PIES dataset includes two sets of weight variables. The first weight variable: "weight_orig" is the original weight variable released by Statistics South Africa in each of the four original data files. In the 1995 IES, this was published as a household weight, while in the latter three IESs the published weights are both household and individual weights. The second weight variable "weight" is a cross entropy (CE) weight created using the approach detailed in Branson and Wittenberg (2014) and the 2008 model for the South African population developed by the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA). The CE weights in PIES were created by the Development Policy Research Unit (DPRU). DPRU followed a similar method as that used for weights in the Post-Apartheid Labour Market Series (PALMS) data but the weights are different from the PALMS weights. The CE weights for IES 1995 and IES 2000 were not imported from their counterpart surveys in PALMS because the match with their counterpart labour force surveys and household surveys in PALMS were imperfect, creating gaps in the CE weights.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data users must consult the documentation available on the landing-page for each of the Income and Expenditure Survey datasets.
Development Policy Research, University of Cape Town. Post-Apartheid Income and Expenditure Series 1995-2010 [dataset]. Version 1. Pretoria: Statistics SA [producer of the source data], 1995-2010. Cape Town: DPRU [producer of the harmonised data], 2016. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.25828/mkg3-hr05