The purpose of the Botswana LFS is to provide information on the economically active population. The main objective of collecting data on the economically active population is among others to provide basic information on the size and structure of Botswana’s workforce. Unlike the first and second Labour Force Surveys, the 2005/06 survey collected information from persons aged 7 years old and above while the previous surveys collected information from persons aged 12 years and above. The inclusion of the 7 years and above category was to measure the extent of child labour in this country. The coding of the occupations was based on the 1988 International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO-88), whilst the definition of the informal sector is in accordance with the 1993 System of National Accounts (SNA -1993). Few questions were asked about the informal activities and migration status of the labour force as this survey was mainly designed to capture information on the labour force characteristics.
The broad objective of the survey was to obtain comprehensive data on the status of the labour market prevailing in Botswana.
More detailed objectives were;
• To provide measures of both current and usual economic activity.
• To obtain a measure of the size of employment in both formal and informal sector.
• To provide measures of unemployment and underemployment.
• To estimate the extent of child labour, obtain child employment activities and reasons for working.
• To estimate total population for the period.
The survey data provides, among others, baseline information on indicators of employment and unemployment levels, and information necessary that can be used to develop, manage, evaluate and report on labour market policies.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Households and individuals
The 2005-2006 Botswana covered the following topics: Household and population characteristics, employment, work-seeking, informal sector employment, underemployment, hours worked, income, migration, and child related activities.
conditions of employment
occupational health and safety
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistics Office (now Statistics Botswana)
Ministry of Finance and Development Planning
In general the 2001 Population and Housing Census, undertaken in August, is the Sampling Frame on which sample selection for the Survey Programmes are based. The census result gives information on population, number of household at Locality, Enumeration Area (EA), village and district/town levels. Also given for each EA is information on ecological zones in rural areas.
The Sampling frame was defined and constituted by all Enumeration Areas (EAs) found in three geographical regions viz. (i) Cities & Towns (ii) Urban Villages, and (iii) Rural Districts as defined by the 2001 Population and Housing Census.
Being a two-stage design, two frames were required one for each stage.
The sampling frame for the first stage based on the 2001 Population and Housing Census. This comprised the list of all Enumeration Area (EA) together with number of households. In the census the EAs were frames of manageable size (in terms of dwellings/households).
The sampling frame for the second stage was produced only in the selected EAs. Before the beginning of the survey interviews, the field teams listed all private habitable dwellings/households in their EAs. Thus the number of occupied households in the selected EA served as sampling frame for that EA.
The frame for the Botswana Labour Force Survey 2005/6 consisted of 4,143 EAs being the total number of Enumeration Areas (EAs) delineated during the 2001 Population and Housing Census.
When national level estimates are the main focus a type of stratification that is simple to implement and highly efficient is implicit stratification. It is a form of geographic stratification, which when used together with systematic pps sampling automatically distributes the sample proportionately into each of the nation's administrative subdivisions, as well as the urban and rural sectors.
Creation of strata is dictated by two principal criteria. These include a need to:
i. provide estimates for each major region of the country.
ii. increase precision
Thus, stratification variables included cities/towns and administrative districts. Apart from national and rural estimates, the Government, which is the main user of CSO data, requires accurate estimates for all regions for planning and monitoring of development projects. Stratification was therefore undertaken such that all districts and major urban centres become their own strata. With regard to increase precision consideration was also given to group EAs according to ecological zones in rural districts and according to income categories in cities/towns.
Geographical stratification along ecological zones and income categories was expected to improve the accuracy of survey data in view that homogeneity of the variables was relatively high (implicit stratification).
There are five major rural ecological zones, namely:
-Mixture of Land and Cattle Post
During the delineation of the maps, each EA was associated with unique ecological zone and thus, grouping the EAs into respective zones was not a problem. To facilitate the selection according to the stratification variables and EAs were listed in some order, for example starting cattle post, then farms etc. in case of rural areas.
Note: See detail sampling procedure description in final report
CALCULATION OF SAMPLING WEIGHTS
Being a multistage design, it follows naturally that the sample selected at each stage represents (or is assumed to) the respective population. The fundamental assumption was that units selected at each stage were similar to those not selected, in respect of characteristics of interest. In the treatment of unit for the non-response the assumption that the responders were similar to non-responders though should not be always taken for granted.
The weights of the sample are equal to the inverse of the probability of selection. Therefore the sampling probabilities at first stage of selection of EAs including probabilities of selecting the households were used to calculate the weights.
Note: See detailed sampling weight calculations in the final report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
After listing the total households in the selected EAs, supervisors made the selection of occupied households and handed over the list of selected households to respective enumerators. After the introduction of the survey team to the Chief of the village or area, enumerators approached the selected households and informed the purpose of their visit to the Head of the household. Enumerators were trained to explain the main objective of the survey to the respondents and encouraged him/her for the participation in the most important and needed mission. Once the respondent was informed about the reason for the visit, enumerator recorded all the relevant information for those members who spent the night in the household. After administering the questionnaire, for the response of individual questionnaire enumerators identified those listed members in the household who fulfilled the criteria as laid down in the household questionnaire. In some cases it was not possible to administer thehousehold questionnaire at the first visit, then call back technique was applied to the maximum of three visits and the final result was recorded in the result box. One household questionnaire was administered for one selected household.
The individual questionnaire was filled for all the members of the households who qualified to be an individual respondent, that is those aged 7 years and more and were usual members of the household. In some cases it was not possible to administer the individual questionnaire at the first visit, then here also call back technique was applied to the maximum of three visits and the final result was recorded in the result box.
The questionnaires are the primary recording documents of the survey. In the development of the questionnaires, a reference group was formed to work into the questionnaire. The final version of the questionnaires were finalized on the basis of the experiences gained from the Pilot Survey conducted using the drafted questionnaires for the survey.
The 2005/6 BLFS consisted of two questionnaires, namely
i. The Household Questionnaire, and
ii. The Individual Questionnaire
This questionnaire is a standardized questionnaire of the CSO's Household Survey Programme except with a little modification as per the need of the designated survey. This questionnaire also set the criteria for eligibility of being an BLFS individual questionnaire respondent.
The Household questionnaire was divided into four major sets of questions, namely
i. Socio-Demographic Characteristics
ii. Parental Survivor and Fostering
iii. Education and Training
Eligibility Criteria was not a question asked by the respondent. It was meant for the interviewer to identify persons who were eligible for an individual questionnaire. UCriteriaU: “Those respondents who were aged 7 years and more and also usual members of this household were eligible for an individual respondent.”
All the eligible individuals from the household questionnaire were asked questions on the individual questionnaire.
The process of individual questionnaire development was not a simple task. The challenge was to develop the types of questions that led to achieving the survey objectives. Standardised questionnaire were developed so as to provide the basis for current (where feasible) and future comparability. More specifically, questions and the design structure of the questionnaire took into full account a set of objectives spelt out above with a view to address them.
The individual questionnaire has the questions mainly on the following topics:
Section 1: For all persons aged 7 years and above
A: Usual Activity.
B: Current Activity
Section 2: For all who did not work in the last 7 days and who were available for work (12 years and above)
Section 3: For all employed in the 7 days.
A: Main Economic Activity (for 7 years and above)
B: Secondary Activity (for 12 years and above)
C: Usual Hours Worked (for 7 years and above)
D: Actual Hours Worked (for 7 years and above)
E: Additional Work
F: Different Work
G: On the Job Training
H: Income from Employment Business
Section 4: Migration (For all persons aged 12 years and above)
Section 5: Housework and Work at School
Section 6: Health and Safety
The Botswana Labour Force Survey instruments (household and individual) were pretested in areas in and around Gaborone on the 14-16 April 2005. Households were selected at random from EAs belonging to different strata according to the stratification in the sample design.
Before data entry was carried out, questionnaires were edited to check if all the relevant questions have been responded to and coded according to the codes designed for the study. Editing and coding started in August 2005 by 19 Coders and finished in August 2006. Data entry was carried out under the supervision of one programmer/supervisor. Consistency checks on the data set as per the Computer edit Specifications were performed.